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Scope and Sequence of Secondary Science

Life Science

The Pattern of Life

Definition of science, science and worldview, biblical vs. naturalistic worldviews, science and biblical ethics, characteristics of life, homeostasis, design of life, modeling, thinking scientifically, limitations of science, classification of life; cell theory, cell structure and function, cellular respiration, photosynthesis; genes, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis, cell division, mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics, genetic crosses, variations on simple genetics, population genetics; biblical creationism vs. evolutionism, change in nature, worldview and change

Microorganisms and Plants

Archaebacterial vs. eubacteria, bacterial structure, reproduction, and importance; antibiotic resistance in bacteria; viruses; protist movement, nutrition, classification, and reproduction; structure, nutrition, and importance of fungi; plant structure and classification; plant hormones, tropisms, and photoperiodism, plant reproduction and life cycles

The Animal Kingdom

Characteristics of animals, characteristics and classifications of invertebrates; sponges, cnidarians, worms, mollusks, echinoderms, arthropods; characteristics and classifications of vertebrates; endotherms vs. ectotherms; fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; nutrition, transport, support, movement, and control systems of animals; animals reproduction and behavior, external and internal fertilization, egg structure and development, and placental reproduction; innate and learned behavior

The Human Body

Structure and function of skin, bones, joints, and muscles; types of muscles; digestive system structure and function; food and nutrition; chemical vs. mechanical digestion; alimentary canal organs; accessory organs; urinary system structure and function; respiratory system structure and function; connection between the respiratory and circulatory systems; circulatory system structure and function; heart, blood cells and plasma; blood vessels; flow of blood through the heart and lungs; connection between the circulatory and lymphatic systems; lymphatic system and immunity; lymph vessels and nodes; components of the immune system; nonspecific vs. specific immunity; vaccines; actives vs. passive immunity; parts of the nervous system; central nervous system vs. peripheral nervous system; nerves, reflex arc, and nerve impulses; sense organs structure and function; eyes, ears, touch, smell, and taste; hormones and endocrine glands; puberty; human reproduction and biblical sexuality; human growth and development

Interacting with the Biosphere

Ecology; abiotic vs. biotic factors; ecosystems and biomes; cycles of matter; water cycle, oxygen and carbon cycles, and nitrogen cycle; food chains, energy pyramids, and food webs; relationships between organisms; symbiosis; succession; managing and protecting the environment; pollution classification and solutions; substance vs. energy pollution; using natural resources; renewable vs. nonrenewable resources; management philosophy; conservation vs. preservation; management principles

Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Earth science and exercising biblical dominion, worldviews and science, the structure of science, scientific models, what earth science is; maps and cartography, geographic information systems (GIS); introduction to physical science, matter, forces, energy, and measuring

The Restless Earth

Earth as a special place designed for life, a brief history of geology, operational and historical geology, the earth’s interior structure, natural resources; old- and young-earth origin theories of the earth, evidences for catastrophic changes in earth’s history, models for geologic tectonics; tectonic forces, faults and earthquakes, earthquakes and seismology, effects of earthquakes; mountains and hills, tectonic mountains and landforms, nontectonic mountains and landforms; volcanic emissions, volcano activity and classification, intrusive volcanism

Earth’s Rocky Materials

Describing minerals, identifying and classifying minerals, minerals as resources; classifying rocks, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks, critiquing the uniformitarian rock cycle; the process of fossilization, paleontology, fossil fuels; weathering, erosion and deposition, soils and soil formation

The Water World

Ocean basins and landforms, seawater composition, ocean environments; tides, currents, waves; history of oceanography, methods and instruments, deep-sea exploration, underwater habitats, research vehicles; stream characteristics, lakes and ponds, limnology; groundwater reservoirs, groundwater chemistry, water as a resource, solution caves and karst topography

The Atmosphere

Composition and thermal structure of the atmosphere, special regions; energy in the atmosphere; measurable weather data, causes of wind, global wind patterns, sources of local winds, cloud formation, classifying clouds, precipitation, dew and frost; air masses and weather fronts, causes of precipitation, winter storms, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, weather forecasting, weather maps, applications of GIS in weather modeling; describing climate and climate zones, climate data and interpretation, observed short-term climate changes from volcanism and oceanic cycles, climate models, worldviews and long-term climate change, environmentalism and biblical stewardship of the environment

The Heavens

The sun-earth-moon system—the sun’s structure, composition and energy, the solar spectrum; the moon’s structure and surface, origin theories; Earth’s orbit, seasons, timekeeping, lunar phases, eclipses, tidal effects; models of the solar system, Kepler’s laws, classification and brief description of the planets, dwarf planets, small solar system bodies, evidences for a young solar system, constellations and star properties, stellar classification and the H-R diagram, stellar aging, classification of galaxies, nonstellar objects, cosmology and worldviews; challenges of space exploration, rocketry, principles of satellite and space probes, challenges and need for manned space exploration

Physical Science

Structure of Matter

Presents science as the development of models to explain and describe phenomena in a fallen and broken world; biblical versus secular worldview aspects of science; definition of key elements of scientific knowledge—laws, theories, and hypotheses; scientific study and application of scientific knowledge as a key aspect of obedience to the Creation Mandate; methodologies of science; scientific measurement; the metric system; accuracy, precision, and repeatability in measurements; introduction to the nature and classification of matter and energy; changes matter undergoes; historical development of the atomic model; structure of the atom; origin of the periodic table; elements and their symbols; classification of the elements; periodic trends; electronegativity and valence electron structure; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds; compounds classified according to bond-type; chemical formulas and equations; oxidation numbers; introduction to organic chemistry and biochemistry

Changes in Matter

Types of chemical reactions; radiation and nuclear changes; classifying mixtures; solutions and the solution process; measuring concentration; acids and bases; salts from acid-base reactions; pH system and measurement

Matter in Motion

Describing motion; frames of reference; momentum; Newton’s laws of motion; gravity; free-fall; mechanical work; levers and other simple machines; mechanical advantage and efficiency; kinetic and potential energy; energy transformations and conservation; thermodynamics— thermal energy, temperature, and heat; basic hydraulic theory; gas laws; fluid mechanics

Waves and Energy

Description of periodic motion; waves and wave phenomena; sound and its properties; the human voice and hearing; applications of sound; static electricity; electric fields; electric current and Ohm’s law; circuits and electrical safety; magnets and magnetism; AC and DC generators and motors; transformers; electromagnets and their uses; bands of the electromagnetic spectrum; the properties of visible light; the nature of color; reflection and mirrors; refraction and lenses

Biology

Science of Life

Creation, Fall, Redemption, the Creation Mandate, study of life, attributes of life, the energy and information of life, worldviews, nature of science, modeling, scientific method, microscopes, elements, thermodynamics, basic chemistry, physical and chemical changes, solutions, organic chemistry, ecology, ecosystems, biomes, food web, symbiosis, biochemical cycles, population growth and biodiversity, climate change, conservation, cell theory and structure, organelles, homeostasis, osmosis, membrane transport, metabolism, DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, photosynthesis, aerobic cellular respiration, fermentation, mitosis, meiosis, Mendelian genetics, genetic crosses, sex-linked traits, gene expression, population genetics, gene and chromosomal mutations, cancer, genetic engineering, historical development of biological evolution, tenants of biological evolution, biblical views of origins, contrasting the evolutionary and biblical views of history

Science of Organisms:

Taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, use of dichotomous keys, comparison of species and kind, speciation, phylogenetic trees, archae and bacteria, bacterial structure, bacterial reproduction, control of bacteria, viruses and related organisms, diseases, protozoan classification and structure, protozoan reproduction and role in the environment, chromist classification and structure, chromist reproduction and role in the environment, evolution and protists, fungi classification and structure, fungi reproduction and role in the environment, plant classification and structure, nutrient transport in plants, plant hormones, tropisms, plant reproduction and role in the environment for mankind’s use, characteristics of animals, classification and structure of sponges, cnidarians, worms, mollusks, echinoderms and arthropods, invertebrate reproduction and role in the environment, classification and structure of ectothermic vertebrates, the reproduction and role in the environment for fish, amphibians, and reptiles, classification and structure of birds and mammals, the reproduction and role in the environment of endothermic vertebrates

Study of Human Life:

The essence of humanity; tissues, organs, and systems; structure, function and role of systems in the human body: integumentary, lymphatic, skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive; human growth and development, balanced living

Chemistry

Foundations of Chemistry

Chemistry: modeling matter, chemistry and worldview, chemistry and modeling, chemistry helps people, a biblical worldview of chemistry, doing chemistry, scientific inquiry, thinking like a scientist

Matter

Classification of matter, organizing our study, properties and changes of matter, classification of matter, energy and matter, work and energy, conservation of mass-energy, the law of entropy, thermal energy, temperature, and heat, states of matter, changes of state

Measurements in Chemistry

Measurement systems, metric system, unit conversion, measurements, limitations of measurements, accuracy, precision, significant figures, problem solving in chemistry, calculations with measured data

Atomic Structure

Early thoughts about matter, investigating atoms, Dalton’s model, development of atomic models, Thomson’s model, Rutherford’s model, completing Rutherford’s model, useful notations, isotopes

Electron Arrangement

Bohr model, electron energy levels, the quantum mechanical model, electron configurations, valence electrons, electron dot notation, ions

Periodic Table and Elements

Early organization, element periodicity, Mendeleev’s periodic table, the modern periodic table, periodic trends, elements by their groups

Chemical Bonds

Bonding basics, octet rule, types of chemical bonds, polarity and bond character, covalent bonding, diatomic elements, Lewis structures, ionic bonding, the structure of ionic compounds, polyatomic ions, metallic bonding, properties of compounds, using chemistry to solve problems

Bond Theories and Molecular Geometry

Bond theories, limits of Lewis structures, orbitals and valence bond theory, molecular resonance, when the octet rule doesn’t work, molecular orbital theory, molecular geometry, VSEPR and molecular shape, orbital hybridization, a measure of polarity, water molecules designed for usefulness, seeking the perfect bonding model

Chemical Compounds

Ionic compounds, oxidation numbers, using oxidation numbers, polyatomic ions, covalent compounds, nonmetals with multiple oxidation numbers, writing chemical formulas, naming compounds, acids, binary acids, ternary acids

Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chemical equations, information in chemical equations, balancing equations, special symbols in equations, limitations of balanced equations, types of reactions, ionic equations

Chemical Calculations

The mole, Avogadro’s number, molar mass, types of formulas, percent composition, empirical formulas, stoichiometry, limiting reactants, percent yield

Gases

Properties of gases, kineticmolecular description of gases,properties of gases, gas laws, standard conditions, Dalton’s law of partial pressures: mixtures of gases, gas stoichiometry, gases in reactions, molar volume, ideal gases, ideal gas law

Solids and Liquids

Intermolecular forces, kinetic description of solids, crystalline and amorphous solids, crystalline structures, kinetic description of liquids, effects of intermolecular attractions, vapor pressure and boiling point, distilling liquids, phase diagrams, using liquids to solve problems

Solutions

The dissolving process, types of solutions, the dissolving process, solvent selectivity, solution equilibria, rate of solution, solubility, measures of concentration, colligative properties, suspensions and colloids, properties of colloids

Thermochemistry

Thermodynamics and physical changes, measuring heat and temperature, enthalpy of phase changes, specific heat, thermodynamics and chemical changes, reaction tendency, chemical bonds and enthalpy, entropy and reaction tendency, entropy changes, free-energy change, worldview conflict in thermodynamics

Chemical Kinetics

Reaction rates, kinetics, energy diagrams, collision theory, activation energy and the activated complex, rates of reactions, reaction mechanisms, rate laws and reaction orders, kinetics in the real world

Chemical Equilibrium

Equilibrium, equilibrium constants, le Châtelier’s principle, equilibria and industry, solution equilibrium, ionic equilibria, common-ion effect, precipitation reactions

Acids, Bases, and Salts

Defining acids and bases, properties of acids and bases, models of acids and bases, acid-base equilibria, self-ionization of water, pH and pOH scales, acid-base strength, amphoteric substances, polyprotic acids, measuring pH, neutralization, salts, titration, buffers

Oxidation and Reduction

Redox reactions, oxidation, reduction, oxidizing and reducing agents, using oxidation to solve problems, balancing redox reactions, electrochemical reactions, electrochemical cells, electrolytic cells, voltaic cells

Organic Chemistry

Organic compounds, unique carbon atom, classification of hydrocarbons, substituted hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines and amides, organic reactions

Biochemistry

Chemistry of life, chemical reactions in cells, biochemistry and ultimate questions, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, polypeptide chains, enzymes, nucleic acids, amino acids, worldview conflict in biochemistry

Nuclear Chemistry

Inside the nucleus, nuclear stability, energy and nuclear changes, measuring radiation, radioactive decay, predicting types of decay, radioactive decay series, half-life, using nuclear chemistry, nuclear reactions, fission, fusion, using nuclear chemistry to solve problems

Physics

Framework

The Christian worldview in which we do science in obedience to God’s commandment to exercise good stewardship over the earth for His glory and for the benefit of our fellow humans; the structure and limitations of science; overview of physics; scientific methodology and modeling; the metric (SI) system of measurement as well as principles of measurement; rules for determining and using significant digits in measurements and calculations

Classical Mechanics

Mathematical description of motion in one and two dimensions (kinematics of motion); vectors and scalars in graphical and analytical solutions; forces and the causes of motion according to Newton’s laws (dynamics); friction; motion in a plane, including circular motion; motion of multi-body systems; work, energy, and total mechanical energy; conservation of energy and simple machines; momentum and its conservation, collisions, center of mass, and angular momentum; periodic and simple harmonic motion, the pendulum, damped and driven oscillations, and physical waves

Thermodynamics and Matter

Kinetic-molecular theory of matter and the states of matter; thermal properties of matter, measuring temperature, and the gas laws; theories of heat, thermal energy, mechanisms for heat transfer; the four laws of thermodynamics; entropy and its consequences; fluid mechanics (hydrostatics and hydrodynamics)

Electromagnetics

Electrostatics and charges; electric fields and capacitors; current, voltage, resistance, and basic DC circuits; transistor theory; magnetism and its relationship to current and conductors; electromagnetism and alternating currents; AC circuit characteristics

Geometric Optics and Light

Electromagnetic spectrum, sources and propagation of light; reflection and mirrors; refraction and lenses; wave interference, diffraction, and polarization; intensity and color of light; optical instruments (telescopes, microscopes, etc.)

Modern Physics

Relativity: Galilean, special, and general relativity; quantum physics: quantum theory, quantum mechanics, the atom, and modern atomic models; nuclear physics: radiation and radioactivity, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, and elementary/subatomic particles

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