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Scope and Sequence of Secondary Science

Life Science

The Pattern of Life

Definition of science, science and worldview, biblical vs. naturalistic worldviews, science and biblical ethics, characteristics of life, homeostasis, design of life, modeling, thinking scientifically, limitations of science, classification of life; cell theory, cell structure and function, cellular respiration, photosynthesis; genes, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis, cell division, mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics, genetic crosses, variations on simple genetics, population genetics; biblical creationism vs. evolutionism, change in nature, worldview and change

Microorganisms and Plants

Archaebacterial vs. eubacteria, bacterial structure, reproduction, and importance; antibiotic resistance in bacteria; viruses; protist movement, nutrition, classification, and reproduction; structure, nutrition, and importance of fungi; plant structure and classification; plant hormones, tropisms, and photoperiodism, plant reproduction and life cycles

The Animal Kingdom

Characteristics of animals, characteristics and classifications of invertebrates; sponges, cnidarians, worms, mollusks, echinoderms, arthropods; characteristics and classifications of vertebrates; endotherms vs. ectotherms; fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; nutrition, transport, support, movement, and control systems of animals; animals reproduction and behavior, external and internal fertilization, egg structure and development, and placental reproduction; innate and learned behavior

The Human Body

Structure and function of skin, bones, joints, and muscles; types of muscles; digestive system structure and function; food and nutrition; chemical vs. mechanical digestion; alimentary canal organs; accessory organs; urinary system structure and function; respiratory system structure and function; connection between the respiratory and circulatory systems; circulatory system structure and function; heart, blood cells and plasma; blood vessels; flow of blood through the heart and lungs; connection between the circulatory and lymphatic systems; lymphatic system and immunity; lymph vessels and nodes; components of the immune system; nonspecific vs. specific immunity; vaccines; actives vs. passive immunity; parts of the nervous system; central nervous system vs. peripheral nervous system; nerves, reflex arc, and nerve impulses; sense organs structure and function; eyes, ears, touch, smell, and taste; hormones and endocrine glands; puberty; human reproduction and biblical sexuality; human growth and development

Interacting with the Biosphere

Ecology; abiotic vs. biotic factors; ecosystems and biomes; cycles of matter; water cycle, oxygen and carbon cycles, and nitrogen cycle; food chains, energy pyramids, and food webs; relationships between organisms; symbiosis; succession; managing and protecting the environment; pollution classification and solutions; substance vs. energy pollution; using natural resources; renewable vs. nonrenewable resources; management philosophy; conservation vs. preservation; management principles

Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Earth science and exercising biblical dominion, worldviews and science, the structure of science, scientific models, what earth science is; maps and cartography, geographic information systems (GIS); introduction to physical science, matter, forces, energy, and measuring

The restless earth

Earth as a special place designed for life, a brief history of geology, operational and historical geology, the earth’s interior structure, natural resources; old- and young-earth origin theories of the earth, evidences for catastrophic changes in earth’s history, models for geologic tectonics; tectonic forces, faults and earthquakes, earthquakes and seismology, effects of earthquakes; mountains and hills, tectonic mountains and landforms, nontectonic mountains and landforms; volcanic emissions, volcano activity and classification, intrusive volcanism

Earth’s rocky materials

Describing minerals, identifying and classifying minerals, minerals as resources; classifying rocks, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks, critiquing the uniformitarian rock cycle; the process of fossilization, paleontology, fossil fuels; weathering, erosion and deposition, soils and soil formation

The water world

Ocean basins and landforms, seawater composition, ocean environments; tides, currents, waves; history of oceanography, methods and instruments, deep-sea exploration, underwater habitats, research vehicles; stream characteristics, lakes and ponds, limnology; groundwater reservoirs, groundwater chemistry, water as a resource, solution caves and karst topography

The atmosphere

Composition and thermal structure of the atmosphere, special regions; energy in the atmosphere; measurable weather data, causes of wind, global wind patterns, sources of local winds, cloud formation, classifying clouds, precipitation, dew and frost; air masses and weather fronts, causes of precipitation, winter storms, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, weather forecasting, weather maps, applications of GIS in weather modeling; describing climate and climate zones, climate data and interpretation, observed short-term climate changes from volcanism and oceanic cycles, climate models, worldviews and long-term climate change, environmentalism and biblical stewardship of the environment

The heavens

The sun-Earth-moon system—the sun’s structure, composition and energy, the solar spectrum; the moon’s structure and surface, origin theories; Earth’s orbit, seasons, timekeeping, lunar phases, eclipses, tidal effects; models of the solar system, Kepler’s laws, classification and brief description of the planets, dwarf planets, small solar system bodies, evidences for a young solar system, constellations and star properties, stellar classification and the H-R diagram, stellar aging, classification of galaxies, nonstellar objects, cosmology and worldviews; challenges of space exploration, rocketry, principles of satellite and space probes, challenges and need for manned space exploration

Physical Science

Structure of matter

Science as the development of models to explain and describe phenomena in a fallen and broken world; biblical versus secular worldview aspects of science; definition of key elements of scientific knowledge—laws, theories, and hypotheses; scientific study and application of scientific knowledge as a key aspect of obedience to the Creation Mandate; methodologies of science; scientific measurement; the metric system; accuracy, precision, and repeatability in measurements; introduction to the nature and classification of matter and energy; changes matter undergoes; historical development of the atomic model; structure of the atom; origin of the periodic table; elements and their symbols; classification of the elements; periodic trends; electronegativity and valence electron structure; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds; compounds classified according to bond-type; chemical formulas and equations; oxidation numbers; introduction to organic chemistry and biochemistry

Changes in matter

Types of chemical reactions; radiation and nuclear changes; classifying mixtures; solutions and the solution process; measuring concentration; acids and bases; salts from acid-base reactions; pH system and measurement

Matter in motion

Describing motion; frames of reference; momentum; Newton’s laws of motion; gravity; free-fall; mechanical work; levers and other simple machines; mechanical advantage and efficiency; kinetic and potential energy; energy transformations and conservation; thermodynamics— thermal energy, temperature, and heat; basic hydraulic theory; gas laws; fluid mechanics

Waves and energy

Description of periodic motion; waves and wave phenomena; sound and its properties; the human voice and hearing; applications of sound; static electricity; electric fields; electric current and Ohm’s law; circuits and electrical safety; magnets and magnetism; AC and DC generators and motors; transformers; electromagnets and their uses; bands of the electromagnetic spectrum; the properties of visible light; the nature of color; reflection and mirrors; refraction and lenses


Science of life

Creation, fall, redemption, Creation Mandate, study of life, attributes of life, the energy and information of life, worldviews, nature of science, modeling, scientific method, microscopes, elements, thermodynamics, basic chemistry, physical and chemical changes, solutions, organic chemistry, ecology, ecosystems, biomes, food web, symbiosis, biochemical cycles, population growth and biodiversity, climate change, conservation, cell theory and structure, organelles, homeostasis, osmosis, membrane transport, metabolism, DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, photosynthesis, aerobic cellular respiration, fermentation, mitosis, meiosis, Mendelian genetics, genetic crosses, sex-linked traits, gene expression, population genetics, gene and chromosomal mutations, cancer, genetic engineering, historical development of biological evolution, tenants of biological evolution, biblical views of origins, contrasting the evolutionary and biblical views of history

Science of organisms:

Taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, use of dichotomous keys, comparison of species and kind, speciation, phylogenetic trees, archae and bacteria, bacterial structure, bacterial reproduction, control of bacteria, viruses and related organisms, diseases, protozoan classification and structure, protozoan reproduction and role in the environment, chromist classification and structure, chromist reproduction and role in the environment, evolution and protists, fungi classification and structure, fungi reproduction and role in the environment, plant classification and structure, nutrient transport in plants, plant hormones, tropisms, plant reproduction and role in the environment for mankind’s use, characteristics of animals, classification and structure of sponges, cnidarians, worms, mollusks, echinoderms and arthropods, invertebrate reproduction and role in the environment, classification and structure of ectothermic vertebrates, the reproduction and role in the environment for fish, amphibians, and reptiles, classification and structure of birds and mammals, the reproduction and role in the environment of endothermic vertebrates

Study of human life:

The essence of humanity; tissues, organs, and systems; structure, function and role of systems in the human body: integumentary, lymphatic, skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive; human growth and development, balanced living


Chemistry for life

History, role, and potential of chemistry; a biblical perspective on studying science


States of matter, interactions with energy, phase changes

Measuring and calculating

Measurement systems, SI units, significant digits in measurement and calculation, organized problem solving

Atomic structure

Historical development of atomic models; subatomic particles, orbitals, quantum numbers, orbital notation, electron configuration, isotopic notation


Development of the modern periodic table, descriptive chemistry; periodic trends of atomic and ionic radius, electronegativity, electron affinity, ionization energy

Chemical bonds

Causes and types of bonding; Lewis structures, formula units, properties of different kinds of compounds

Bond theories and molecular geometry

Valence bond theory, molecular resonance, molecular orbital theory, valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, molecular shapes, polar covalent bonds

Chemical composition and reactions

Oxidation numbers, writing formulas, chemical nomenclature, polyatomic ions, balancing chemical equations, types of reactions

Chemical calculations

The mole; structural, molecular, and empirical formulas; percent composition; stoichiometric conversions; limiting reactants; percent yield


Properties of gases, measuring pressure, gas laws, partial pressures, stoichiometric conversions with gases

Solids and liquids

Intermolecular forces, properties of solids and liquids, phase changes, crystalline solids, phase diagrams


Solution types, solvation, solubility, rate of solution, measuring concentration, colligative properties, colloids

Chemical thermodynamics

Thermochemistry, enthalpy, specific heat, reaction tendency, entropy, free-energy change

Chemical kinetics

Energy diagrams, rates of reactions, reaction mechanisms, rate laws

Chemical equilibrium

Reversible and irreversible reactions, equilibrium concentrations, equilibrium constants, Le Châtelier's principle, applications of equilibrium chemistry

Acids, bases, and salts

Properties of acids and bases, acid and base definitions, pH and pOH scales, neutralization, titrations, buffers

Oxidation and reduction

Redox reactions, electrochemistry, electrolytic cells, electrolysis, voltaic cells

Organic chemistry and biochemistry

Organic compounds, hydrocarbons, functional groups, organic reactions, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids

Materials chemistry

Ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, plastic recycling, nanotechnology

Nuclear chemistry

Nuclear stability; measuring radiation; alpha, beta, and gamma decay; nuclear reactions



The Christian worldview in which we do science in obedience to God’s commandment to exercise good stewardship over the earth for His glory and for the benefit of our fellow humans; the structure and limitations of science; overview of physics; scientific methodology and modeling; the metric (SI) system of measurement as well as principles of measurement; rules for determining and using significant digits in measurements and calculations

Classical mechanics

Mathematical description of motion in one and two dimensions (kinematics of motion); vectors and scalars in graphical and analytical solutions; forces and the causes of motion according to Newton’s laws (dynamics); friction; motion in a plane, including circular motion; motion of multi-body systems; work, energy, and total mechanical energy; conservation of energy and simple machines; momentum and its conservation, collisions, center of mass, and angular momentum; periodic and simple harmonic motion, the pendulum, damped and driven oscillations, and physical waves

Thermodynamics and matter

Kinetic-molecular theory of matter and the states of matter; thermal properties of matter, measuring temperature, and the gas laws; theories of heat, thermal energy, mechanisms for heat transfer; the four laws of thermodynamics; entropy and its consequences; fluid mechanics (hydrostatics and hydrodynamics)


Electrostatics and charges; electric fields and capacitors; current, voltage, resistance, and basic DC circuits; transistor theory; magnetism and its relationship to current and conductors; electromagnetism and alternating currents; AC circuit characteristics

Geometric optics and light

Electromagnetic spectrum, sources and propagation of light; reflection and mirrors; refraction and lenses; wave interference, diffraction, and polarization; intensity and color of light; optical instruments (telescopes, microscopes, etc.)

Modern physics

Relativity: Galilean, special, and general relativity; quantum physics: quantum theory, quantum mechanics, the atom, and modern atomic models; nuclear physics: radiation and radioactivity, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, and elementary/subatomic particles

© 2020