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Scope and Sequence of Secondary Science

Life Science

Foundations of life science:

definition of science, modeling, thinking scientifically, limitations of science, biblical vs. naturalistic worldview; scientific method; characteristics of life, cell theory, molecules and life; classification of life; cell structure and function, cellular respiration, photosynthesis

Heredity and the origin of life:

genes and cell division, mitosis and meiosis, asexual and sexual reproduction; DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis; Mendelian genetics, genetic crosses, variations on simple genetics; genetic disorders; gene mutations, chromosomal changes, genetic engineering, cloning, stem cell technology; biblical Creationism, nonliteral views of Creation, age of the earth, the Flood, fossils; history of evolutionary theory, mutations and evolution, evolutionary family trees, speciation

Microbiology and plant biology:

archaebacteria vs. eubacteria; bacterial structure, reproduction and importance; antibiotic resistance in bacteria; viruses; protozoan movement, nutrition, and reproduction; algal structure, nutrition, and reproduction; importance of protists; structure, nutrition, and importance of fungi; plant structure; water movement , gas exchange, and photosynthesis in plants; plant growth and hormones; plant tropisms, nastic movements, and photoperiodism; plant classification and life cycles; sexual and asexual reproduction in plants; flower structure, seeds, and pollination

The animal kingdom:

sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, earthworms, mollusks, echinoderms, arthropods; endotherms and ectotherms, body systems in vertebrates; fish, amphibians, metamorphosis, reptiles; birds, mammals, classification of mammals; animal behavior, external and internal fertilization, egg structure and development, placental reproduction

Interactions in the environment:

ecosystems, biomes, abiotic environment, water cycle, succession; biotic community, populations, carbon and oxygen cycles, nitrogen cycle, limiting factors; circadian rhythms, seasonal rhythms; food chains, food webs, ecological pyramids; organism relationships, competition, camouflage, warning coloration, mimicry, predation, symbiosis, parasitism; natural resources, agriculture, endangered species, extinction, human population changes, conservation, pollution

The complex design of the human body:

structure and function of skin, burns; structure and function of skeletal system, fractures, joints; types of muscles, muscle physiology; homeostasis, types of blood cells, blood clotting, blood types, blood plasma; blood vessels, heart structure, flow of blood through heart, blood pressure; immune system, organ transplants; allergies, autoimmune diseases, and AIDS; excretory system; anatomy, physiology, and disorders of the respiratory system; anatomy and physiology of the digestive system, chemical digestion; nervous system, reflexes, brain anatomy, sense organs; hormones and endocrine glands, puberty; metabolism, nutrition; psychoactive drugs, smoking, addiction; spread of disease, protection against disease

Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Earth science and exercising biblical dominion, worldviews and science, the structure of science, scientific models, what earth science is; maps and cartography, geographic information systems (GIS); introduction to physical science, matter, forces, energy, and measuring

The restless earth

Earth as a special place designed for life, a brief history of geology, operational and historical geology, the earth’s interior structure, natural resources; old- and young-earth origin theories of the earth, evidences for catastrophic changes in earth’s history, models for geologic tectonics; tectonic forces, faults and earthquakes, earthquakes and seismology, effects of earthquakes; mountains and hills, tectonic mountains and landforms, nontectonic mountains and landforms; volcanic emissions, volcano activity and classification, intrusive volcanism

Earth’s rocky materials

Describing minerals, identifying and classifying minerals, minerals as resources; classifying rocks, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks, critiquing the uniformitarian rock cycle; the process of fossilization, paleontology, fossil fuels; weathering, erosion and deposition, soils and soil formation

The water world

Ocean basins and landforms, seawater composition, ocean environments; tides, currents, waves; history of oceanography, methods and instruments, deep-sea exploration, underwater habitats, research vehicles; stream characteristics, lakes and ponds, limnology; groundwater reservoirs, groundwater chemistry, water as a resource, solution caves and karst topography

The atmosphere

Composition and thermal structure of the atmosphere, special regions; energy in the atmosphere; measurable weather data, causes of wind, global wind patterns, sources of local winds, cloud formation, classifying clouds, precipitation, dew and frost; air masses and weather fronts, causes of precipitation, winter storms, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, weather forecasting, weather maps, applications of GIS in weather modeling; describing climate and climate zones, climate data and interpretation, observed short-term climate changes from volcanism and oceanic cycles, climate models, worldviews and long-term climate change, environmentalism and biblical stewardship of the environment

The heavens

The sun-Earth-moon system—the sun’s structure, composition and energy, the solar spectrum; the moon’s structure and surface, origin theories; Earth’s orbit, seasons, timekeeping, lunar phases, eclipses, tidal effects; models of the solar system, Kepler’s laws, classification and brief description of the planets, dwarf planets, small solar system bodies, evidences for a young solar system, constellations and star properties, stellar classification and the H-R diagram, stellar aging, classification of galaxies, nonstellar objects, cosmology and worldviews; challenges of space exploration, rocketry, principles of satellite and space probes, challenges and need for manned space exploration

Physical Science


presents science as the primary means of creating models to explain and describe phenomena in a fallen and broken world. Framed as an engaging forensics investigation into a recent passenger air crash. Christian versus secular worldview aspects of science; definition of key elements of scientific knowledge—laws, theories, and hypotheses; “dominion science” as a key aspect of obedience to the Creation Mandate; methodologies of science; introduction to the nature and classification of matter and energy; changes matter undergoes; scientific measurement; the metric system; accuracy, precision, and repeatability in measurements; introduction to significant digits and scientific notation


describing motion; frames of reference; Newton’s laws of motion; gravity; free-fall; momentum; kinetic and potential energy; energy transformations and conservation; mechanical work; levers and other simple machines; law of moments and efficiency; fluid mechanics, including basic hydraulic theory; Charles’s and Boyle’s gas laws; thermodynamics—thermal energy, temperature, and heat


static electricity; electric fields; measuring and storing charges; electric current and Ohm’s law; batteries; electrical safety; magnets and magnetism; geomagnetism; AC and DC generators and motors; transformers; electromagnets and their uses

Periodic phenomena

description of periodic motion; pendulums; waves and wave phenomena; sound and its properties; infrasound and ultrasound; the human voice and hearing; applications of sound; bands of the electromagnetic spectrum; radio-frequency technology; the properties of visible light; the nature of color; reflection and mirrors; refraction and lenses.

The structure of matter

historical development of the atomic model, structure of the atom; radiation and nuclear changes; origin of the periodic table; elements and their symbols; classification of the elements; periodic trends

Introduction to chemistry

electronegativity and valence electron structure; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds; compounds classified according to bond-type; chemical formulas and equations; oxidation numbers; types of chemical reactions; classifying mixtures; solutions and the solution process; measuring concentration; acids, bases; salts from acid-base reactions; pH system and measurement


Science of life

Creation, fall, redemption, Creation Mandate, study of life, attributes of life, the energy and information of life, worldviews, nature of science, modeling, scientific method, microscopes, elements, thermodynamics, basic chemistry, physical and chemical changes, solutions, organic chemistry, ecology, ecosystems, biomes, food web, symbiosis, biochemical cycles, population growth and biodiversity, climate change, conservation, cell theory and structure, organelles, homeostasis, osmosis, membrane transport, metabolism, DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, photosynthesis, aerobic cellular respiration, fermentation, mitosis, meiosis, Mendelian genetics, genetic crosses, sex-linked traits, gene expression, population genetics, gene and chromosomal mutations, cancer, genetic engineering, historical development of biological evolution, tenants of biological evolution, biblical views of origins, contrasting the evolutionary and biblical views of history

Science of organisms:

taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, use of dichotomous keys, comparison of species and kind, speciation, phylogenetic trees, archae and bacteria, bacterial structure, bacterial reproduction, control of bacteria, viruses and related organisms, diseases, protozoan classification and structure, protozoan reproduction and role in the environment, chromist classification and structure, chromist reproduction and role in the environment, evolution and protists, fungi classification and structure, fungi reproduction and role in the environment, plant classification and structure, nutrient transport in plants, plant hormones, tropisms, plant reproduction and role in the environment for mankind’s use, characteristics of animals, classification and structure of sponges, cnidarians, worms, mollusks, echinoderms and arthropods, invertebrate reproduction and roll in the environment, classification and structure of ectothermic vertebrates, the reproduction and role in the environment for fish, amphibians, and reptiles, classification and structure of birds and mammals, the reproduction and role in the environment of endothermic vertebrates

Study of human life:

the essence of humanity; tissues, organs, and systems; structure, function and role of the following systems in the human body: integumentary system lymphatic, skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Human growth and development, balanced living.


Chemistry for Life

History, role, and potential of chemistry; a biblical perspective on studying science


States of matter, interactions with energy, phase changes

Measuring and calculating

Measurement systems, SI units, significant digits in measurement and calculation, organized problem solving

Atomic structure

Historical development of atomic models; subatomic particles, orbitals, quantum numbers, orbital notation, electron configuration, isotopic notation


Development of the modern periodic table, descriptive chemistry; periodic trends of atomic and ionic radius, electronegativity, electron affinity, ionization energy

Chemical bonds

Causes and types of bonding; Lewis structures, formula units, properties of different kinds of compounds

Bond theories and molecular geometry

Valence bond theory, molecular resonance, molecular orbital theory, valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, molecular shapes, polar covalent bonds

Chemical composition and reactions

Oxidation numbers, writing formulas, chemical nomenclature, polyatomic ions, balancing chemical equations, types of reactions

Chemical calculations

The mole; structural, molecular, and empirical formulas; percent composition; stoichiometric conversions; limiting reactants; percent yield


Properties of gases, measuring pressure, gas laws, partial pressures, stoichiometric conversions with gases

Solids and liquids

Intermolecular forces, properties of solids and liquids, phase changes, crystalline solids, phase diagrams


Solution types, solvation, solubility, rate of solution, measuring concentration, colligative properties, colloids

Chemical thermodynamics

Thermochemistry, enthalpy, specific heat, reaction tendency, entropy, free-energy change

Chemical kinetics

Energy diagrams, rates of reactions, reaction mechanisms, rate laws

Chemical equilibrium

Reversible and irreversible reactions, equilibrium concentrations, equilibrium constants, Le Châtelier's principle, applications of equilibrium chemistry

Acids, bases, and salts

Properties of acids and bases, acid and base definitions, pH and pOH scales, neutralization, titrations, buffers

Oxidation and reduction

Redox reactions, electrochemistry, electrolytic cells, electrolysis, voltaic cells

Organic chemistry and biochemistry

Organic compounds, hydrocarbons, functional groups, organic reactions, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids

Materials chemistry

Ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, plastic recycling, nanotechnology

Nuclear chemistry

Nuclear stability; measuring radiation; alpha, beta, and gamma decay; nuclear reactions


A framework

the Christian worldview in which we do science in obedience to God’s commandment to exercise good stewardship over the earth for His glory and for the benefit of our fellow humans; the structure and limitations of science; overview of physics; scientific methodology and modeling; the metric (SI) system of measurement as well as principles of measurement; rules for determining and using significant digits in measurements and calculations

Classical mechanics

mathematical description of motion in one and two dimensions (kinematics of motion); vectors and scalars in graphical and analytical solutions; forces and the causes of motion according to Newton’s laws (dynamics); friction; motion in a plane, including circular motion; motion of multi-body systems; work, energy, and total mechanical energy; conservation of energy and simple machines; momentum and its conservation, collisions, center of mass, and angular momentum; periodic and simple harmonic motion, the pendulum, damped and driven oscillations, and physical waves

Thermodynamics and matter

Kinetic-molecular theory of matter and the states of matter; thermal properties of matter, measuring temperature, and the gas laws; theories of heat, thermal energy, mechanisms for heat transfer; the four laws of thermodynamics; entropy and its consequences; fluid mechanics (hydrostatics and hydrodynamics)


electrostatics and charges; electric fields and capacitors; current, voltage, resistance, and basic DC circuits; transistor theory; magnetism and its relationship to current and conductors; electromagnetism and alternating currents; AC circuit characteristics

Geometric optics and light

the electromagnetic spectrum, sources and propagation of light; reflection and mirrors; refraction and lenses; wave interference, diffraction, and polarization; intensity and color of light; optical instruments (telescopes, microscopes, etc.)

Modern physics

relativity: Galilean, special, and general relativity; quantum physics: quantum theory, quantum mechanics, the atom, and modern atomic models; nuclear physics: radiation and radioactivity, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, and elementary/subatomic particles

© 2018